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Important Conditions in Casino Games

You’ve probably seen that most online casinos advertisements usually offer some sort of bonus or FREE money to get you to start playing there. Like most things in the world, nothing really comes free, so before you start claiming this free money and then getting upset that you’ve been scammed, I suggest you keep reading and see how this all works.

First of all, you may ask; why do online casinos even offer this “free” money?

It’s part of their marketing and differentiation strategy. In a nutshell, online casinos are generally “skins” of a specific software provider, so actually behind the different owner, graphics, licensing etc under the bonnet there’s not much difference between let’s say all Playtech powered casinos, or all Microgaming powered ones.

So, if they are mostly the same below the hood, there needs to be some sort of difference which will convince you to play at “X” online casino and not “Y”. Besides the graphics, licensing, support and reputation, another way to pitch to potential players is by giving them something, in this case, a bonus.

Having put that out of the way, the next question you might ask yourself is: OK, so Casino X is offering $5,000 free, maybe I’ll sign up, take my $5,000, play them out and go on to Casino Y.

The answer here is pretty simple as well. In order to claim bonuses at at an online casino, you will usually need to make a deposit, unless it’s specifically stated that you don’t, but we’ll get to that later.

Before we sink into the beef of the different types of bonuses offered at online casinos, here are a few extra terms and points you should be aware of, so you can clarify them with a support representative before claiming a bonus, just so you know where you stand and what you’re claiming.

  1. Wagering requirements: Most bonuses have wagering or playthrough requirements, meaning that you need to play a certain amount before you can withdraw winning from your account. On average wagering requirements are usually between 15 to 40 times, however pay attention to what you are required to wager. In some cases it will be just the bonus times X and in others you will need to wager the bonus + your deposit amount X times. The latter by the way is more common.

Another tidbit you should pay attention to with regards to wagering requirements is, that at most online casinos, if you request a withdrawal before you have completed the wagering requirements, all your winnings to date will be void. Not really fair, but this is reality.

  1. Games played: Make sure you read the T&Cs in this case. Because slots games are generally the most profitable games for online casinos, many bonuses tend to be valid only for slots games. Usually scratch cards and keno will comply with this rule.

In other cases, you will be allowed to play your bonus on all games; however not all games will count 100% towards the playthrough requirements. For example play on slots will count 100% but roulette will only count 30%, meaning that you will actually need to wager over three times more in order to clear the wagering requirements and withdraw your winnings.

  1. Minimum deposit requirement: In most cases, in order to claim a bonus you will be required to make a minimum deposit, which again can vary. It’s generally a small amount which you will probably deposit anyway. It’s usually not over $50.

Now that we’re all on the same page and speaking the same language, it’s time we went through the main types of bonuses available at most online casinos.

  1. A Match bonus is the most common type of bonus. For every $ you deposit, you will be credited X% of what you deposited by the casino. So, if, for example, casino Z is offering a 100% match bonus, deposit $100 and the casino will give you an extra $100 in bonus money. This means that actually start playing at the casino with $200. Match bonuses are almost always limited to a certain maximum bonus amount you can claim. A match bonus can be a standalone bonus as part of a promotion (more common at US friendly online casinos) and/or as part of the welcome bonus
  2. A welcome bonus is generally offered by most, if not all, online casinos to new players who sign up and make their first deposit at the casino. The welcome bonus is the sum of all the possible match bonuses you can accumulate as a new player at the casino over a specific period of time, or within your first X deposits, or a mix of the two; so if a casino advertises a $3000 welcome bonus, it’s actually the maximum you can get with the 1st deposit bonus, second deposit bonus, monthly bonus etc, where if you deposit the maximum amount of each match bonus, you can reach the advertised welcome bonus. If you deposit less than needed for the maximum bonus in each stage, you won’t reach the amount advertised in the welcome bonus. So, in fact, the welcome bonus advertised is the MAXIMIUM amount you can claim in bonus money during your first period of playing at the casino. 안전놀이터
  3. A No deposit bonus is pretty self-explanatory. It’s a bonus you receive from an online casino which will enable you to play real money games without having to make a deposit. This is a great tool for online casinos to acquire new players as it lets them try out the casino without having to make a deposit. In some countries it helps solve the “trust” issue casino players have with online casinos. Many players who feel comfortable depositing and playing at one online casino will be wary when trying out another one they’ve never played at. Other players don’t want to make a deposit without trying out the software and games so a no deposit bonus can definitely help here. Some online casinos give no deposit bonuses as part of their standard offering and others steer well away from such bonuses as they claim that they tend to attract the wrong type of players, i.e. players who have no intention of playing for real money in the first place and that it just puts a strain on the support team with no actual outcome. I think that the truth is probably somewhere in the middle and that people claim no deposit bonuses for different reasons.

No deposit bonuses are generally for a pretty small amount, usually $10-$15 and they are either offered to potential clients directly by the casino or by websites affiliated with them. No deposit bonuses also have wagering requirements you need to complete before you are able to withdraw your winnings if you’ve been lucky.

  1. Sticky/Play only bonuses are bonuses which you cannot withdraw from your account. If you get lucky and win and request a withdrawal, the bonus amount you received will be deducted off your winnings. Let’s say you claimed a $50 sticky bonus and got lucky bringing your account balance to $500. Now you would like to withdraw your winnings and go celebrate with friends. The online casino will only allow you to withdraw $550 from your players account and $50, which is the sticky bonus amount, will be void. Play only bonuses are usually larger than match bonuses and the wagering requirements lower.


Delta 8: What is Is and How It Functions

Delta 8 is a cannabinoid that is present in the cannabis plant. It is one of the most psychoactive Cannabinoids and is well-known for its potent effects on users.

Delta 8 may have medical benefits, like the reduction of pain and inflammation. In this article, we will discuss the nature of Delta 8 is, how it works, as well as the potential benefits it could bring.

What Is Delta 8?

Delta-eight THC is a tHC cannabinoid that can be found in cannabis plants. It is among the most psychoactive cannabis cannabinoids and it is known for its potent effects on users.

Delta-eight-THC is different from Delta-nine-THC which is the most famous cannabinoid. Delta-eight THC is not as psychoactive than Delta-9-THC but has stronger anti-inflammatory properties.

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How It Works

The mechanisms through that Delta eight THC is working is not completely comprehended, however it is believed to function similar to other cannabinoids. It binds with CB receptors within the brain, which alter neurotransmitter releases and can cause a range of psychoactive effects.

Potential uses

The effectiveness of Delta-eight THC in relieving inflammation has been demonstrated. It may also have other benefits for therapeutic purposes. There is a possibility that Delta eight THC can be utilized to treat ailments like chronic pain, arthritis and other inflammatory disorders.

It is also possible Delta eight THC can be utilized to lessen nausea and vomiting specifically when chemotherapy patients are suffering from cancer. These possibilities are currently being studied.

How Delta 8 Is Different Form Delta 9

  • Delta eight differs from Delta 9 in several points.
  • The first is that Delta eight does not trigger psychoactivity, which means that it doesn’t cause the THC-like “high”.
  • The second reason is that Delta 8 is more anti-inflammatory that Delta 9.
  • Third, Delta eight lasts longer within the body than Delta nine.
  • Fourth, Delta eight is less likely to create anxiety and paranoia than Delta nine.

Is Delta Eight Legal?

Yes, Delta eight is legal in the majority of states. But, some states have laws regulating the production and sale of hemp-based products. Check with your state’s laws to find out more.

Is Delta 8 Safe?

Yes, Delta eight is safe. However, like with all supplements and medications it is best to consult with your doctor prior to starting any new supplement or medication.

Where Can I Buy Delta Eight?

You can buy Delta eight online at various retailers. Make sure you check for third-party lab testing to ensure you’re getting a quality product. Delta eight is also available Delta eight at some local dispensaries.

How To Use Delta 8

There isn’t an answer that is universally applicable to this question. To determine how to best utilize Delta eight according to your needs, you should consult your doctor. In general, people tend to begin with a lower dosage and increase gradually as needed.

Delta 8 Products

There’s a wide selection of Delta eight options, each comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. It is important to do your own research to find the right product for your needs.

What are the effects of Delta Eight?

As with all medications or supplement, there are potential side effects associated with Delta eight. These can vary from mild to serious, so it is important to consult with your doctor before starting treatment. Some of the most common side effects include headaches or drowsiness. Other common side effects include dry mouth.

Dosage Recommendation for Delta 8

The product you use will determine the recommended dosage of Delta eight. Follow the directions of the manufacturer. In general, it is recommended to begin with a lower dosage and increase gradually as needed.


Let us conclude by saying that Delta 8 is an effective supplement that can boost your overall health. It is essential to speak to your doctor before you begin treatment. Make sure you take the prescribed dosage.


Essential Oils for Allergies How to Find Relief

Do you suffer from allergies? You know how awful allergies can affect your life. The sneezing, the itchy eyes, the congestion! It’s difficult to make it through the allergy season.

Essential oils could be able to provide relief for your symptoms. In this post, we’ll discuss essential oils for allergies and how you can utilize these oils.

What are essential oils?

Essential oils are concentrated liquids that are taken from plants. These oils are rich in essential nutrients as well as the scent of the plant.

The healing effects of essential oils have been in use for a long time. They’re now an effective natural cure for a variety of ailments, including allergies.

How Do Essential Oils Work?

Essential oils work by interfacing with the body’s limbic systems. This is the brain part which regulates emotions, memory and levels of stress.

Inhaling essential oils, they transmit signals to the limbic system that may help reduce anxiety, ease depression, and boost your mood.

What Are The Best Essential oils for Allergies?

There are many essential oils that can be helpful for allergy relief. The following essential oils can be effective in relieving allergies:

  • Lavender oil
  • Peppermint oil
  • Eucalyptus oil
  • Tea oil from trees
  • Oil of Rosemary

What are the best essential oils to use to treat allergies?

Essential oils can be used in many ways to combat allergies. You can:

  • Inhale the vapors and inhale them by adding a few drops to a diffuser.
  • Combine a couple of drops essential oil and water inside a spray bottle, and spray it all over your office or home.
  • Use carrier oils such as almond oil to dilute essential oils and apply them on topically to your back or chest.

Are there any issues when using essential oils for allergies?

If used properly Essential oils are typically safe. There are some potential problems that essential oils can cause.

  • Essential oils may cause skin irritation if you have sensitive skin. Before applying essential oils topically ensure that you test it on a small patch of your skin.
  • Essential oils can be poisonous when consumed in large quantities. Essential oils should not be taken internally without supervision from a qualified healthcare professional.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding do not use essential oils unless instructed to use them by your physician.
  • Essential oils shouldn’t be inhaled by people suffering from asthma or other respiratory problems.

Are There Alternative Uses of Essential Oils?

Essential oils for allergies can provide some relief, there are other methods of using essential oils. Many people like using essential oils in vaporizers and diffusers to improve the scent of their home. Certain people also use essential oils in their bath water or create your own cleaning supplies. There are recipes for edible desserts made with essential oils. But, not all essential oils can be ingested.

What should I look for in the right essential oil?

It isn’t easy to pick the best essential oil to use. There are many alternatives available. Look for the essential oil with the following characteristics:

  • Pure and unadulterated nature
  • Therapeutic grade
  • No synthetic ingredients

The most effective way to treat allergies is by using essential oils. If used correctly, they can help to improve your quality of life and can make your home smell amazing. Do your research prior to using essential oils. Also, make sure to follow all instructions on the labels. With a little bit of effort, you’ll find the perfect essential oil for your needs.

Let’s wrap up by saying that essential oils can be very efficient in relieving allergies. But, it’s important to note that they must be used cautiously.


Advent of Online Slot Machines

The advent of online slot machines has been considered by many casino players as boon because it allows you to play games at your convenience in your house. You can access too many websites which provide the best online slot machines and the different bonuses these slots offer in order to enable you to make a considerable gain through playing these slots. For most of the casino players, it is a very boring affair sitting near the slot machine for a long time and plays the game. The slot machines are a different version for gambling and makes possible for the casinos to make huge money. The online machine slots are very much sought after games both in the land based casinos and online. The advantage of the online machine slots is that you are enabled to play the machine slot with your real money.

Free games

Several of the online slot machines provide free games for you to play and at the same time there exist several slot online machine websites facilitate you to play with real money. Prior to giving a deposit for a slot online machine, you must make sure that the site has valid license and you access their performance details as well as their service quality. You can access this information from certain websites which offer details regarding the best performing and those which are having poor quality services. The operation in a slot online machine is very simple where you put the coin and operate the liver and watch for your luck. No strategy is required in playing the online slot machine unless you go in for playing in the complex machines with multiple operations. Online slot machine will be a helpful thing for you in the next.

Super slots casino games

The super slots casino games are not very much different from other online slot machines. Here they concentrate on games on slot machine. The super slots games are very much progressed technically and are very novel games. The software for these super slots casino games is available to you and you can enjoy the have the unique experience of the game. The super slots casino has introduced a scheme for VIP. Under this scheme, you can points which in earn for each spin of reels and these points could be redeemed for purchases, or convertible into cash payments as well as winning entries for grant rewards. Also the super slots casino offers attractive bonuses for the deposit you make for playing the game, which are in the range of 25 to 100 percent of the deposit amount. The super slots will also be a good and nice thing if you want it. The super slots casino gives different payment options for you which include credit card payment and similarly offers various withdrawal options such as sending the cheque by courier, bank wire etc

Shop ihemp: The Best Site to Purchase CBD Products

Do you want to buy delta 8 North Carolina but don’t know how to begin? You can start by shopping at Ihemp! We are the largest online retailer of delta 8 products in America.

We sell a variety of delta 8 items, such as capsules, topicals, tinctures, and capsules. Only top-quality, premium delta 8 products are sold through us. We only work with reliable producers.

What factors affect the quality of hemp?

The quality of hemp is determined by a variety of variables. The most significant factor is the genetics of the plant. Hemp plants can be either female or male, and they are often produced from the clones.

Male plants have greater CBD than female plants. The third most significant element is the climate that the plants are cultivated. Hemp plants require a lot of sunshine and well-drained soil. Additionally, they must be grown in an area where there are no other crops in the vicinity which can cross-pollinate.

The third aspect is how hemp plants are processed after they have been harvested. The flowers and leaves of the plant are dried , crushed in order to extract CBD oil. CBD oil is extracted and cleaned.

Things to Consider When Looking for Hemp Products

When you’re looking for hemp products, it is important to be aware of the following aspects:

  • The hemp extract quality used in the product
  • The purity of the CBD oil is unquestionable.
  • Dosage of CBD
  • The method of extraction used to create the oil
  • Whether or not the product is organic
  • Source of the hemp plant

What is Delta 8 different from CBD?

Delta-eight (delta-eight) is a cannabinoid that is found in hemp plants. It is a non-psychoactive compound which does not trigger the “high” commonly associated with marijuana. Delta-eight has been proven to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

CBD oil is made from delta-nine (delta-nine) which is a psychoactive cannabis. CBD oil is legal in all 50 states because it contains less than 0.03% THC.

How to Choose the Perfect Hemp-based Product for You

Be aware of these aspects when you are deciding on hemp-based products:

Dosage of CBD

  • The extract quality that is used in the product
  • The pureness CBD oil is pure. CBD oil is unmatched.
  • The potency of the product
  • The cost per milligram of CBD
  • Delivery method (tincture capsules, tincture.

When you are deciding on a hemp product, you should also take into account your individual needs. Do you require a high-CBD oil for medical reasons, or are you searching for something low in THC that you can use for recreational use?

Types Of Delta 8 Products

There are a variety of delta-eight products available on the market, such as:

Tinctures: Tinctures of the Delta Eight are among the most well-known ways to consume the cannabinoid. They can be consumed sublingually (under the tongue) and come with a wide variety of flavors.

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Capsules of Delta-eight: These capsules are an easy way to take the exact amount of the cannabinoid. They can be taken either with or without food, and offer a discrete method for delta-eight to be taken.

Edibles: As more companies join the market, Delta-eight edibles become more sought-after. They can be found in the form of chocolate bars, hard candy and much more.

Topicals Benefits of Delta-eight can be enjoyed without having to swallow it orally. These products are applied directly on the skin, and provide relief from inflammation, pain and much other.

Vaping: Delta-eight vaping is a fantastic way to consume this cannabinoid. Vaping is the quickest and most effective method to reap the benefits of delta-eight.


Let us conclude by affirming that delta-8 is an potent cannabinoid that offers numerous advantages. If you’re seeking relief from pain, inflammation or any other condition We suggest giving delta-eight a try.


Thunderstruck 2 Slot Machine – New Online Slot Gam

Among various methods of gambling, online casino gambling has become a trend lately. These online casinos are known by several names such as Internet casino, virtual casino etc. The concept of online casino is the same as that of land based casinos. The main advantage of online casino gambling over traditional land based gambling is that it can be done at any hour from any corner of the world. Online casinos give enormous opportunities to gamers to play and earn huge amount of profits. Most of the casinos offer high payback percentages and that is the most lucrative aspect of online casinos.

There are a couple of casinos that make tall promises in terms of unbelievably high payback percentages in regard to slot machine games like poker. There are also a few casinos that use a well programmed random number generator. In such casinos, table games usually have a preset house edge. The payout percentage is fixed and is decided according to rules of the game. slot online indonesia

Online casinos can be broadly classified into three categories namely web based online casino, live based casino and lastly download based online casino. Web based casinos allow gamers to play their favourite games without even downloading the specialised software. Games are played either through HTML interface or browser plugins such as Macromedia Shockwave and Macromedia Flash. Download-based online casinos, on the other hand, have a mandatory requirement to download the software. In fact, you cannot start playing unless and until you download this software. Live casinos provide live gaming environment to its players that makes the game more enjoyable.

Gamers playing at online casinos usually never leave the casino without earning profits. Reward can be in cash or kind. Every time, it is not necessary that you will get handsome cash. Sometimes, you don’t get cash at all but you get an opportunity to win exciting jackpots and several kinds of bonuses. There are bonuses on new sign-ups. Most of the online casinos require you to pay a certain amount before allowing you to try your luck in online casino gambling.

There are some online gambling casinos that provide its gamers with cash back bonus in which you get back a specific portion of the total amount you lost in the game. Online gaming offers an average gamer numerous opportunities to multiply his/her income by several times. There are lots of lucrative casino bonuses that include instant cash bonus, sign up bonus, no deposit casino bonus and many more. The best part about online casino gambling is that without investing even a single penny, you can become rich overnight. There are many casinos that allow you to play for free. In fact, for opening account, the casino gives free bonus; that is more than what one could hope for. Monthly bonuses have also become a part of strategy of most of the online casinos to entice visitors. But that is an added advantage. So, who wouldn’t mind receiving a certain amount of money every month?

What most of the gamblers do is they don’t make any investment to play games at online casino. They simply use the bonus amount to gamble and win further prizes. So many gamblers have become millionaires within a short span of time. All this has been possible through online gambling at casino. To conclude, online casino gambling is believed to be one of the quickest and most lucrative means of earning money.

“Bookie Bonus Buster” is a well known E-book on betting exchange. In my e book, you’ll find everything from knowledge bank to graphics to strategies. My aim is to give you a ready made thing that you need to just hold in your hands and start reaping its benefits. There is comprehensive material on how to strategically place bets and back the team to win. So, all you people out there, subscribe to our book and effectively perform the task of bet backing.

Online Slot Systems – Can They Make Consistent Profits?

Nowadays, things have changed a lot with the coming of the Internet. There are many online gambling sites present on the web today since 1996, where amateur gamblers can try their luck in online casinos. This is quite advantageous for all those people who feel intimidated to play in real casinos. Also, sometimes in real casinos veteran players and dealers get annoyed with these amateurs when they ask irrelevant questions. So, it is preferable for the novice players to go for these virtual casinos.

Virtual casinos have easy access game slot online Terpercaya

Now, in land casinos there is also the presence of roulette machines on which players have very slim chances of winning money. It is also quite easy to go to online casinos because it just requires making use of your computer. But, in a land casino it would require spending money and often going to another country. Online casinos save you from the hassles of spending money on travel expenses. You can also play games in these casinos whenever you desire rather than waiting for your holidays in the case of land casinos.

But, there is a risk of not getting the winning amount in case of online casinos which can be quite devastating. On the other hand, you can easily collect your money in a land casino. No such fraud can occur in a land casino where you are physically present.

More games and fun at an online casino

It can also be more fun to be at a real casino because it might have live concerts, musical shows and tempting waitresses. Virtual casinos can accommodate almost 30 different types of games, rather than a land casino which does not have much space. You can also see on your computer whether your favorite game is hosted by the online casino, instead of visiting a land casino to check the availability of the desired game.

Quick availability of cash in online casinos

Online casinos also offer free bonuses to the customers in the range of 10 to 2400 dollars and they can easily spend the casino’s money. Unlike a real casino, online casinos deal in multiple currencies. This is quite beneficial for the players because they get chances to play with other players in their currencies. For example, a person who is residing in Italy can easily play with an American player by purchasing credit in US dollars. It is quite convenient because there are no annoyances of converting currency before placing a bet.

Ease of dressing up in a virtual casino

In an online casino, one certainly has the advantage of not worrying about the dress code. You can sit naked, wear pajamas or anything that you are comfortable in while playing in a virtual casino. In a land casino, you have to choose your attire consciously according to the social circle and the weather. Sometimes, the dress may even cost you a lot.

The Thar Desert Camel Safari

Each vacation spot within the international has to provide uniqueness. Even if they appearance simple and popular, there is much left to discover. Tourism agencies make the most productive time whilst searching out locations. You will in most cases see offerings for restrained destinations simplest. But this is also because they comply with inside the footsteps of others. However, if they start to search for themselves, they can discover lots. Dubai is a certain land in which exploration by no means ends. You will locate your self amazed on every occasion you visit.
Another purpose for such entertainment is that Dubai has to rely on tourism all the time. For this, they discover new ways to entertain people, and hence, it blessings the visitors. Desert become the element where Dubai had no longer invested earlier than. But best for some years, the desert is now their second or in all likelihood the first attraction. What it gives is a damage from the frenzy existence of the towns. And accordingly, it makes your stay and trips amazing. Here, it is approximately the way you as a traveller could make the maximum of your Desert Safari Dubai journey. And what belongings you want to do not forget.

Although this isn’t always a technology examine or something that requires in-depth understanding. Looking for new places out of your sofa and device is extraordinary fun. When going to any place with none heritage check, it will become unproductive. Rather is you input or visiting understanding what to do, you could entertain yourself higher. Moving to Dubai isn’t always terrific. But journeying precise locations is. That is why your experience to the wilderness have to start with some looking regarding what to do.

Visiting Times
Associating activities with temperature is something not unusual within the UAE. But in case you research nicely, you will discover UAE itself does now not care approximately the heat in any respect. If you want to visit Dubai and places in particular, simply dispose of the temperature barrier. There isn’t any season to go to or no longer go to Dubai. Rather it is the time of the day you need to attend to. For instance, for a Desert Safari, the nice time to visit is early round 8 am, and during the night from five pm. During the midday, the warmth and warn breeze do now not in shape an day trip beneath clean skies.

Friendly Packages
Your bargaining and choice skills will come to the take a look at right here. Selecting any package depends on your touring time table and the sports you need. Thus, you may find several Desert Safari Deals but the selection is vital. For a productive time, we advocate you select a ride that finishes or completes in an afternoon. It is because staying extra can be pricey and might be overdoing with the region.
However, for the barren region nightlife, plan to come inside the night. For the day enthusiasts, beginning early will suggest all the using sports and a mild brunch. All of this can end before midday and you can head lower back for your room for a fast nap. In the evening, it isn’t always approximately using but handiest entertainment. These encompass live shows, dance evenings, and a traditional BBQ dinner. To cap off, you will below a tent or a camp for a night stay.

Avoiding Extra Charges Dubai Desert Safari offers
This is the step in which productiveness speaks volumes. Planning, research, and selecting the proper package come down thus far. You already spend plenty for your hotel accommodations. Moreover, you’ll find Dubai Desert Safari Offers with a purpose to be every so often high-priced. But your plan have to be to avoid any extra fees that you will be paying. These encompass in many methods but you do no longer need to spend on journeying.
That is why we endorse which you select a Dubai Desert Safari journey that consists of a choose and drop facility. Often the service issuer is a long way out of your inn. And to scam you, they want you to return to their setup after which book a ride. However, since you are already paying lots on your Desert Safari Deals. Make sure you supply the burden to the providers on your appears. Additional Precautions
• Accompany a good neighborhood driver for car using within the sand if your carrier company does now not offer one
• Do not take small children for rides on custom vehicles in the desert
• Make sure to hold some meal for a day ride
• Stay in a very good camp at night but avoid more luxury

Buy Yourself a Bit of Casino – Part Two

There are companies which are jacks of all trades – own soft, casino, poker, bets… Two most famous companies of this nature are presented in the market. In June, 2005, PartyGaming (LSE: PRTY) entered the market – the owner of the known to all PartyPoker plus several casinos (later betting, bingo, financial trading were added). With a starting price of shares at £1,350, they gained in price up to £1,730, which resulted in the total company cost of over $10 bln – a record which will be doubtfully beaten soon! But after bouncing the Americans in 2006, the cost dropped many times; now the share price is only £230 with a total company cost of about £1 bln (or $1.5 bln). The world greatest on-line casino (also with its own soft, plus poker-room, and later other games of chance were added) – Casino on Net, and to be exact, it’s 888 Plc. Company, was corporatized only a few months later. First, the shares also increased in prices from £170 to £230, but 2006 did not spare it either, though the impact was not that severe, as for Party. Strange as it is, the company experienced a serious drop-down in the spring of 2010; now the shares cost £44, which gives the capitalization of only £150 mln (and it was over $1 bln). 우리카지노계열

Factually, there are not many companies, specialized in on-line casinos, listed in the stock-market. There are two of them, to be precise; and both entered the stock-market in 2005, the year popular for taking on-line companies to the stock-exchange. Both suffered from bouncing the Americans (though they had been specializing in European markets), and the cost of their shares were comparable. In general, the first online casino to be corporatized was Gaming VC company (LSE: GVC), better known as Casino Club, one of the leaders in the German-speaking market, and also among the roulette fans. Like with many others, after the issue of shares, their growth was witnessed (from £450 to £870), but the notorious 2006 and the ban for the Americans to gamble have dropped the shares many times – to £100. After that, the shares have been slowly growing, reached past £200, but the decline in the last months has again dropped the price to £110. At that, the company capitalization amounts to £35 mln.

Our second hero is 32 Red company (LSE: TTR), owning a 32Red casino online under the same name (then they have acquired several more casinos, and also, lately, presented the stakes). Starting from £130, in 2006 the shares fell to £26, and after a rise, the world crisis arrived, and there were new drop-downs, and now the shares cost about £15, and the whole company – £10 mln.

Finally, let’s see the major diversified players at a glance. They are mainly being European off-line bookmakers with a strong presence on-line, offering not only wagers, but also online casinos, poker, bingo rooms, lotteries, etc. I’ll point out several most meaningful names in this subgroup: William Hill (LSE: WMH), Ladbrokes (LSE: LAD), BWin (Vienna: BWIN), Paddy Power (LSE: PAP). All of them cost the order of 1.2 bln, only the first pair is in pounds and the second one in Euros (now, the pound is by 20-30 percent heavier than Euro). Such companies as SportingBet, Bettson, Unibet, etc. are valued at several hundred million. The price of these companies usually makes the order of several tens – a couple of hundred pounds or Euros, correspondingly. The price of these companies has been fluctuated considerably during the last years, though 2006 did not substantially affect the cost of these companies’ shares, since they were initially focusing on Europe, and the prevailing element of the cost in any case is represented by the off-line part of the business. For some time, Paddy Power and Bettson have been showing not very bad results among the mentioned companies, despite the crisis.

Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras: Action (or Kriya) Yoga

Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras is a brilliant exposition of the philosophical principles, deep truths, and disciplines of yoga. It organizes the disciplines into eight “limbs,” or categories, of yoga practice. Specific meditation techniques are not given; only kinds of disciplines are discussed. Many of its sutras (aphorisms) describe and comment on these practices. This timeless treatise by an enlightened yogi addresses the universal human condition of apparent separation from God (avidya, not knowing the Supreme Reality) and shows us how to overcome the mental tendencies and illusions that keep us in this condition. Back pain

Like tree limbs, which emerge in sequence, the first disciplines come first. As they develop, mature and bear fruit, the next ones are practiced. For example, yama prepares one to practice niyama. Patanjali calls the last three elements of niyama “kriya yoga” (“kriya” means action). Marshall Govindan takes the position that these three elements of kriya (or action) yoga constitute the whole of Patanjali’s yoga. However, all eight limbs are discussed in great detail in verses 2.30 through 3.8 of the Sutras and provide a far more complete description of yoga.

In verse 2.1, Patanjali says: “Kriya yoga consists of tapas (austerity, self-discipline), svadhyaya (self-study), and Ishvara pranidhana (devotional surrender to God).” (Note: The words in parentheses are commonly accepted translations of the Sanskrit terms.) In the “eight-limbed” path, the kriya yoga practices of niyama precede asana (meditation posture), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses from their objects), dharana (concentration), dhyana (uninterrupted, deep concentration), and samadhi (oneness with the object of meditation). For this reason, “kriya yoga” is sometimes interpreted “preliminary yoga.” However, the first of the eight limbs, yama, consists of five abstentions (don’ts), and the five elements of niyama are observances (dos), so the kriya yoga practices of niyama can also be interpreted “action yoga,” which implies doing something.

The following comments from Govindan’s book on the Sutras contradict Yogananda and other enlightened yogis, who concur that the yoga of Patanjali is the “eight-limbed” path.

Foreword (xiv, xv) by G. Feuerstein: “… while Patanjali’s teaching has become virtually equated with eight-limbed yoga (ashtanga yoga), he himself called his path that of action yoga (kriya yoga) in pada 2.1.” “The aphorisms in the Yoga Sutras dealing specifically with the eight limbs appear to have been quoted by Patanjali or subsequently added to his text. There is no real satisfactory explanation for why Patanjali used the label kriya yoga for his teachings.”

Introduction Part 2 (xxiii) by M. Govindan: “Feuerstein has pointed out, however, that Patanjali’s yoga was not the “ashtanga” or “eight-limbed” yoga, described in verses 2.28 to 3.8, as has been commonly thought by most translators. Textual analysis has revealed that these verses were merely quoted from another unknown source.”

On the contrary, Patanjali never called his path that of action (or kriya) yoga; not in verse 2.1 (pada 2.1), nor in any other verse, nor did he say it consisted of anything other than ashtanga yoga. And if he had quoted the verses pertaining to ashtanga yoga, it would indicate that he agreed with them.

In Chapter Three of The Holy Science by Swami Sri Yukteswar a yoga teaching that includes the practices of ashtanga yoga is presented, but it is somewhat different from that of the Yoga Sutras and appears to represent a different school of yoga. This illustrates that the principles, truths and practices of yoga are universal and can be discovered by yogis independently of each other. Of course, two different people would never perceive, categorize or explain these principles, truths and practices in exactly the same way, so unless verses 2.28 to 3.8 of the Sutras were compiled from various sources, they are the unique creation of a single person. That person appears to be Patanjali because there is perfect agreement and harmony between these verses and the other verses in the Sutras.

With regard to the idea that Patanjali’s yoga was not the eight-limbed path but only kriya yoga and that verses 2.28 to 3.8 were either quoted by him or added to his text later on, the following points should be considered. If Patanjali had quoted these verses it would mean that he agreed with what they say. One of them, verse 2:29, states that yoga consists of eight limbs, and other verses discuss each of the practices of kriya yoga, treating them as elements of the second limb. Moreover, apart from the verses about ashtanga yoga, which according to Govindan and Feuerstein, did not come from Patanjali, there are only two verses in the Yoga Sutras about kriya yoga. If Patanjali’s path was kriya yoga and the verses pertaining to ashtanga yoga were added to his text later on, we would expect him to have devoted more than two verses to describing and commenting on his path.

As mentioned before, kriya yoga consists of tapas, svadhyaya and Ishvara pranidana. The austerities or self-disciplines of tapas involve rising above bodily desires and enduring pain or discomfort, by means of determination and will; “svadhyaya” means deep study of the nature of the Self; and Ishvara pranidhana includes both devotion to God and acceptance of God’s will.

Verses 1.23, 2.2, and 2.45 of the Sutras tell us that Ishvara pranidhana and kriya yoga lead to samadhi. Through devotional surrender to God one rises above the influence of ego, harmful desires, and illusions, which darken the mind and keep one from knowing God. The heart’s natural love shines forth and illumines one’s inner life. One follows the guidance of Spirit and practices the moral disciplines of yama with greater resolve. Not only do the blessings of yama come into one’s life, but in addition, the first two stages of niyama naturally arise: one’s thoughts and body become more pure and one finds contentment within. Through devotional surrender to God, one eventually becomes totally absorbed in God. Nevertheless, according to the Yoga Sutras, limbs three through seven, practiced along with the first two limbs, also lead to samadhi, and all eight limbs constitute yoga. (The seventh limb of yoga, “dhyana,” is usually translated as “meditation,” but in modern, everyday usage “meditation” is often taken to mean all or several of the limbs that follow niyama: assuming a suitable posture, controlling breath and life force, withdrawing awareness from objects of the senses, calming and focusing the mind, deep concentration on a particular aspect of God, and fully uniting with God in blissful oneness.)

In verses 3.16 to 3.54, verses that Govindan and Feuerstein attribute to him, Patanjali comments on various functions of samyama, which consists of dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. Inasmuch as his teachings included these final, culminating limbs of ashtanga yoga, to be complete they must have also included the five disciplines that precede samyama and facilitate its practice. Because he never said his path was kriya yoga and because the verses about ashtanga yoga describe what are generally considered to be essential components of yoga and fit in with his teachings in other parts of the Sutras, it seems highly unlikely that his path was kriya yoga rather than ashtanga yoga, and that these verses were quoted by him or later on added to his text. They are an integral part of his masterful treatise, perfectly in accord with the other aphorisms in the Sutras, and appear to be his own teachings.

George Johnston and his wife, Mary Ann, were married at Song of the Morning retreat in the year 2000 and moved to Onekama, Michigan in 2016. Together they write about teachings that have been received in our time from Jesus, Yogananda and other masters to guide us in our modern world of complex technology and an ever-changing way of life, and to open our hearts and minds as we enter an age of greater spiritual awareness and understanding of eternal truth.